Building a login system with HTML, CSS, as well as JavaScript|Zell Liew

I built a login system with HTML, CSS, and also JavaScript when I made Learn JavaScript’s pupil portal. I would love to share this system with you because it appears to work well.

How the system functions

The system goes like this:

Logging in

Trainees can log in to the program with their e-mail address and a password.

When they submit the form, I send their e-mail and also password to my server with a BLOG POST request. Right here’s what the demand appears like:

zlFetch is a collection I constructed to make the Fetch API less complicated to make use of. You can find out even more about zlFetch here. The auth choice transforms username as well as password into a fundamental verification header.

My web server utilizes JSON Web Symbols (JWT) to verify individuals. It returns a JWT token. The JWT token is a lengthy string that appears like this:

This token serve as credentials for future logins. I save this token inside localStorage so I can log students in instantly.

Checking if the student is logged in

To inspect whether a pupil is logged in, I examine the localStorage for the token. If localStorage doesn’t have a token, I recognize the trainee has actually not logged in.

If the pupil is not logged in, I reroute them to the login web page.

If the localStorage has a token, I still require to check the credibility of this token. To do this, I send out another BLOG POST demand to my web server.

If the response achieves success, my server returns another token with a brand-new expiration date. This new token allows students to stay visited for a longer period.

Upgrading a pupil’s gain access to degree Besides token, I save a trainee’s “access degree” inside localStorage too. This “access degree” identifies what lessons a pupil can access.

I save this gain access to level when the pupil visit for the very first time.

I store the access degree once more when the token is verified. This permits me to:

2 birds with one rock!

Logging out

It’s basic to logout. We just need to remove the items we placed in localStorage.

Stopping gain access to for pupils without JavaScript

This training course is constructed with a static site generator. Each lesson is a plain HTML data. Trainees can bypass the authentication layer as well as check out the HTML directly if they shut off JavaScript.

This should not take place.

To prevent people from switching off their JavaScript to watch lessons, I included a no-js course to the HTML component.

I remove this no-js course when there’s JavaScript.

And also I hide the major material if the user turned off JavaScript.

A message to activate JavaScript

Students that try to access the program website without JavaScript will see a blank page. They may get perplexed and assume the page didn’t load.

I require to inform these trainees to switch on JavaScript, so I added a < tag.

That's the entire login process!

Thanks for analysis. Did this short article aid you out? If it did, I hope you consider sharing it. You might assist somebody else out. Thanks a lot!

10 Inquiries To Ask Before Website Design Or Web Development

In this fast-evolving digital period, internet sites play a crucial duty in promoting your brand to your target market. The rise of e-retail and also e-commerce is the result of people browsing the web for purchasing. Their service depends on the platform on which their website is constructed as well as exactly how it looks. A great Website design Firmfirst understands the requirements of its customer and afterwards starts to construct the web site.

At present, numerous companies on the market case to be the most effective in their job, however their job is never ever up to the mark. This is disconcerting as well as you require to be cautious from them. They not just lose your hard-earned cash but likewise your important time that you should be spending on promoting your business. If you are trying to find the most effective, you will certainly look for it online. You will obtain several firms listing. Currently the fundamental part is just how to determine the ideal web designing as well as developing the firm for you.

Right here we offer you 10 essential concerns that you must ask these business prior to completing them for your web site designing and also growth:

Just how Seasoned Is Your Group?

If you are wanting to employ a Web Design Business in UAE,you need to make certain that the group dealing with them has appropriate job experience. Internet site developing and advancement is a severe work of technology. A great internet designer follows the international guidelines to offer your web site the best appearances. Contributing to it the internet designer integrates all the functions to offer greater customer experience. Even the advertising and marketing as well as study group provide much-needed details to various other teams to develop your job.

Do You Have Any Previous Experience Of Handling Project Comparable To Mine?

This is a really crucial question as it offers you understanding right into what are the abilities of this Website Design Business in Qatar. Firms that have a wide account recognize more regarding various industries. Overall, a previous experience in a similar job is an advantage since then the technological group will recognize your exact demand.

What Is Your Project Development Cycle And Also How Much Time Do You Require To End up?

The procedure of task growth differs from company to agency. It is essential to understand just how your job will certainly start as well as procedure of integrating different phases occur. It gives you an idea of the entire job life cycle. Also, you understand who is playing what function to keep yourself as much as date.

Do You Customized Design an Internet Site Or Make Use Of The Layouts For Website Designing?

The as well as throughout the globe use pre-made themes but charge for the custom layout of the site. They do this to lower the price of developing and advancement. If you do not have a budget plan constrain you need to go with a personalized layout because it assists you to stand out of the group.

Can You Share Several Of The Sample Job You Have Done Prior to That Are Live?

It is important to check the live-work than otherwise. Live job provides you a much better understanding of the capabilities of their team and also a vision on your project expectation. You can likewise inquire other concerns while going through the real-time example tasks to assess them much better.

Will You Execute All Work Of Our Job In Residence Or Outsource?

Though this is not a deal-breaker you need to know the true abilities of the firm, you are looking to employ. It is vital to know which part they will execute as that can impact the total price, time as well as high quality of your job.

What Are The Requirements From Our Company You Need For The Job?

A great agency understands what information it requires from its clients to develop the project right. They will ask you to share your needs as well as may need to share some confidential information.

What Time Will You Take To Supply Our Project?

In service, time is cash as well as you require to monitor it. You need to develop your advertising and marketing approach so recognizing the moment of job distribution assists.

Do You Have Quality-Testing Team With You?

Throughout the project development, mistakes are bound to occur as well as a top quality screening group catches these glitches and also gets them remedied.

Exactly how Do You Enhance The Site For The Search Engine Optimization?

The loading time of website and also easy to use style are crucial parameters for better exposure on the online search engine. Asking this gives you a clear idea of their attitude.


There is no ending to the inquiries yet the above ten concerns will certainly help much better recognize the capabilities of the prior to you employ. You can get to Delimp Innovation for quality services.

The blog post 10 Questions To Ask Before Web Site Style Or Internet Development showed up initially on delimp.

Learn To Code Now – A book on learning HTML, CSS + Javascript – SuperHi

Your home where I was increased was an ideal place for our family, except for one severe imperfection: your home did not have my parents’ fingerprints on it. So started a continuous building and construction job that lasted nearly a decade. Bathrooms were moved as well as wall surfaces knocked down; skylights were mounted, had their leaks dealt with, then uninstalled for the problem they created. My parents removed the attic, raised the ceilings, got a bigger Xmas tree to make use of the new vertical clearance, then commemorated the New Year by re-tiling the washrooms.

Eventually after getting back from school, I saw my papa hovering over a huge stockpot with wood strips extended over the edge like raw spaghetti. He was steaming the slabs, he claimed, to soften them. He ‘d then gradually form each strip along the rounded edge of our integrated shelf to utilize as trim for the semi-circular shelves at the end. My father was shown this approach by my grandfather, an additional amateur furniture manufacturer, and now it was my turn to find out the procedure. “Focus on the wood, adhere to the grain, and if you take care, the wood will certainly flex and also not damage,” he said. This was plainly meant to be a life lesson in addition to a lecture in woodworking, the type of useful inheritance that dads like to supply their children. Hold your horses. Be mild. Obtained it.

Woodworking didn’t take. Ten years of growing up in a building area made me swear off woodworking. (Additionally, we got a computer the year after my lessons in woodwork. Exactly how could I withstand?) Instead I design and also build software application, which has its own methods and methods, but I still discover myself going back to my dad’s lesson. All products, whether wood or pixels, have a grain, and that grain suggests the most effective way to function. Choose the grain and also one will certainly locate sturdiness combined with tremendous versatility– an all-natural as well as amazing give that premises decisions and excites with possibilities. Work versus the grain as well as the work comes to be precarious, difficult and also breakable. Rather than the sophisticated bending that software application calls for to get used to various displays, utilizes, as well as situations, the work breaks since it can not adapt.

This suggestion of a grain, nonetheless, flies in the face of our expectations for technology. Software application is commonly offered as a wide-open, infinitely malleable material. We anticipate modern technology to aid us conquer constraints, not produce even more of them. Can not I do what I want? Just to an level.

We use teak for outdoor furniture since it is weather condition resistant. We use white pine for timber sculpting because it is soft. These type of reasoning additionally go with creating software application. On screen, we utilize flat colors and also simple slopes, because they’re light-weight, very easy to programatically draw, and can scale for areas of differing percentages. Sites have straight stripes of content piled vertically, because that is just how we check out, as well as it is much easier for most individuals to scroll vertically than flat. All of these design selections originate from an understanding of the products available. What is the grain of software? It involves fluidity. People that work with software develop versatile systems that can take care of variability: material of differing lengths, connections of different rates, individuals with numerous sort of capability as well as attention period. What does the web page appear like if it is vacant? If it is complete? As well as every possibility in between on a smart phone? Collaborating with software application is never making in the direction of a repaired artifact like a chair or publication. Instead, it is specifying and developing problems for an entire set of opportunities.

The easiest means to explore as well as evaluate these opportunities is by working with the raw materials themselves. Find out a bit of code and also adjust points. A tough understanding of HTML, CSS and Javascript goes a lengthy way in the direction of comprehending what is possible with the medium.

You will make errors. Points will not function. However you will certainly remain in good company. All of us obtain it wrong on the first, 2nd, even 3rd shots, despite just how much experience we have. Getting your hands on the materials is a finding out procedure for everybody. We really feel the grain as well as find the contours of the issue we are to solving, and revise when our efforts do not work fairly as expected. Fortunately, code as well as pixels are free, so your trials and errors need to be cheaper than the considerable amount of lumber I ‘d lose if I ever occupied woodworking.

My father never fully comprehended what I did for a living, however we could constantly discover common ground in craftsmanship. Great is grounded in focus to information, and also knowledge of as well as respect for the products. The more experience I get, the much more this proves itself. Focus, respect the material, listen to how it guides you, as well as be gentle. You’ll be shocked by what you can do as well as exactly how adaptable everything can be.

5 Web Design Errors That Will Certainly Hurt Your Search Engine Optimization Campaign

People make use of Google as the key tool of research study. For this reason, Search Engine Optimization is among one of the most crucial elements of your electronic advertising and marketing technique. Without reliable optimisation, your web site won’t have a correct on the internet visibility.

Your site is one of the most important aspect of any Search Engine Optimization campaign administration, as it’s where all the optimization job is done. Regardless of exactly how essential SEO is, lots of firms as well as companies still make common website design blunders that can damage the progress of their SEO campaigns.

With that stated, below are 5 layout mistakes to stay clear of when you’re planning to release a Search Engine Optimization project:

1. Positioning key phrases in picture files and not the alt text area

This is a typical concern for lots of websites that share their messages through charts and infographics, as they will bypass putting keywords in the message itself. While this might not be an issue for customers, it’s an issue for Google. Google’s formula can read the message in images, but they’re not virtually as effective as when it’s written out for them. This will certainly disrupt its creeping system, which will cause your site being punished.

2. Stopping working to develop site structure or page hierarchy

You need to ensure that you prioritise web pages that will serve to users. Google’s algorithm will certainly also intend to ensure that people don’t obtain puzzled about where to discover the pages they’re trying to find, so it’s important for you to develop the appropriate website structure.

3. Overlooking to optimize image documents

One point that few people learn about is that photos can be optimised to sustain your overall ranking. Spiders do not perceive photos as we do, they will certainly interpret them as a code. If the code is incomprehensible to them, they won’t recognize what to do with the information.

Consequently, by changing the name from “screenshoNeglectingt( 1 ). png” to “dog_with_bone”, you will certainly be making the picture a lot more legible for Google. If you help Google to have a less complicated time reading your website, it will prioritise you over the sites that do not. Therefore, make sure you have a title and alt text for every single picture you put on your site.

4. Forgeting the importance of mobile-optimisation

People are browsing with their mobile phones especially, so it is necessary that you mobile-optimise every element of your website. Not just does this assistance to promote the ranking of your site on mobile searches, but it additionally helps on desktop searches.

Google prioritises the customer experience over everything else, which is why they intend to see to it that everyone has the best browsing experience on the leading websites that they recommend. If your site doesn’t sustain mobile accessibility, it will certainly influence your traffic, retention time and bounce price, which will ultimately minimize your positions.

While it’s tough to optimise your website for every single smart phone and also os, responsive style is a website design element that will instantly change your site to fit any kind of screen and display. Rather than having to by hand apply modifications for each platform, you can have your site resized immediately based upon the tool’s display.

5. Forgetting to reduce the tons time

The lots time is the most critical part of UX layout, it’s the very first point that the user will discover as quickly as they click the link. If your load time is longer than 3 seconds, your bounce price will boost substantially for each succeeding 2nd the site requires to lots. For that reason, you wish to make certain that you optimise the site rate in addition to the interface to allow for the most effective surfing experience.

Among the very best ways to reduce the filling time is by pressing file dimensions. These elements have a considerable impact on the lots time, as it will certainly take much longer for them to load.

If you’re searching for a natural Search Engine Optimization firm in Totnes, Devon. Populate Media is here to help!
Contact us today for
a cost-free appointment.

Usage The HTML GeoLocation API to Offer Place Experiences

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The increase of mobile devices in recent years has transformed the video game to include place understanding to several applications, even line of work applications. A couple of years ago I ran several websites that allowed visitors to locate resources in their location. Most significantly I ran a website to find location fairway. I used the fairway site’s core in a number of my presentations at the time.

Back then the way I would establish an individual’s place was to query an IP database that would certainly have a reasonable latitude and longitude readily available to query my database as well as center a map from either Google or Bing. Today that has transformed as all the present browsers support the HTML5 Geo-location spec. In essence you must no longer require to quiz an IP data source, rather the web browser makes the individuals latitude as well as longitude offered with a connected precision.

While the HTML5 Geo-location support might not offer a quicker experience for your application contrasted to a personal data source lookup, yet what it does provide is a multi-tiered strategy to identifying where the customer is actually located. On my sites I would consist of a query to my independently hosted data source, on my web server, today web browsers leverage a system that queries a mix of place solutions, starting with GPS solution if it is offered on your equipment.

A lot of smart phones have a GPS chip, which gives one of the most exact analysis. However this will only work if the device is outdoors. Normally I am able to get precision within 10 meters, once I relocate inside this accuracy breaks down. The reason precision weakens is accessibility to the GPS satellites is blocked by the building or structure bordering the device. Now some loss backs kick in.

I there are Wi-Fi access factors readily available, consider a Wi-Fi router in your house and also your next-door neighbor’s residences. These gain access to factors have their areas stored in openly available database preserved by Google, Microsoft, Apple and I think a few others. If you are stunned by this you should not be. When Google produces a road sight they drive around streets and log all the SSIDs they come across and also where they are located. From this details they have actually developed a really abundant data source of openly noticeable gain access to points. I am not exactly sure where Microsoft, Apple and also others have acquired the information in their data sources. An additional popular solution some location conscious applications make use of is SkyHook.

If your tool can’t identify your place from GPS or Wi-Fi and it will try to triangulate off cell towers. This is normally the least accurate way to figure out place. In my experiments when utilizing cell tower triangulation the accuracy worth was commonly 3000 meters, inside structures. My current provider is Sprint, a CDMA network. I have checked out other companies report in the 1000 meter range. When outside, and GPS not available the precision can range between 60 and 360 meters. In either case this is not the most precise methods to determine place, but for a lot of area conscious applications this is precise sufficient. An additional note concerning using cell towers is the phone may only report the distance from the tower presently being used, additional reducing accuracy. I believe this could be the factor my phone reported a 3 km difference.

Additional Area Information

Latitude, longitude and precision are the only needed worths returned in the coordinate things. In addition it might additionally report the gadget’s elevation, altitude precision, heading and speed. Often these worth are not offered, a minimum of for me. My phone is an HTC Arrive on the Sprint CDMA network. My various other examination tools are relegated to Wi-Fi only, so they do not mirror an actual situation, with the exception of Wi-Fi.

For my desktop browsers the elevation info never seems readily available. Maybe due to the fact that this is not readily available for the access factors in my variety. The heading and rate are never ever provided, yet I think this is to be anticipated because a desktop or perhaps a laptop computer is not truly a device that manages a relocating target really frequently. When it comes to my mobile phones, Windows Phone, iPhone and also Android phones this varies. I am discovering my iPhone does report altitude. I am not exactly sure if this is due to the ATT inactive SIM card I have in the phone or is part of the regular apple iphone Geo-location solution. My Wi-Fi only iPad does report elevation information. Safari on my desktop computer does not report the elevation. My Windows Phone did report altitude as long as I had a GENERAL PRACTITIONER or decent cell tower function.

In my recent experimenting I fell short to get heading as well as speed worths. However I did do some initial screening last summer season and also did obtain these values, once again on my HTC Arrive, periodically. I did those tests, as I did the other day, at a local mall with 3 levels. I recall walking on the very first floor in 2015 as well as obtaining the rate and also heading values sometimes. Yet I additionally had the ability to get much more accurate place worths on the very same initial flooring. The other day nevertheless I was just getting an inadequate accuracy location worth (3 kilometres) on the very same flooring. Actually the only time I was within a football area’s accuracy got on the 3rd level, when I got on the main concourse, near the aluminum ceiling with a running skies light. My uncertainties are the Sprint network high quality has actually broken down a lot since last summer as I am discovering it harder and harder to preserve a strong signal each day in lots of markets.

Final thought

Boosting mobile smart device and tablet computer adoption every day is increasing the need to develop place aware applications for both customer as well as line of business applications. In the consumer market neighborhood, suggesting what is really close to me right now, searches are becoming increasingly more vital because mobile customers intend to find points like shops, locations to eat and instructions instantly. Including Geo-location abilities to an application raises its value to mobile customers. As organisations are battling to take on a high quality mobile approach including place recognition to line of business applications includes value to several existing line of business applications. Workers can find sources, fellow staff members faster. Place information can also be affixed to included as meta information to deals and other logging tasks providing a much richer index.

The HTML5 Geolocation API makes consisting of important location data very easy. Understanding the high quality of the area information additionally raises the knowledge of organisation procedures and also customer retail opportunities.

Why Mobile 📱 First Responsive Web Design?

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Why Responsive Web DesignMobile now accounts for the largest traffic share, which has put pressure on companies to offer rich user experiences across devices. A good user experience is multidimensional, encompassing user interface, navigation and performance.

Each of these areas can be broken into almost infinite sub-areas providing developers and designers with many opportunities for creativity and optimizations. To be honest I find this to be the fun part of my career.

Responsive web design is about providing the optimal user experience irrespective of whether they use a desktop computer, a smartphone, a tablet or a smart-TV.

According to Mashable, more than 60 percent of people use at least two different technological devices per day to access the internet. More than 40 percent use at least three. Imagine all of the different devices currently being used to access your sites and business applications.

Amongst the people that use 2 or more different devices in a day, more than 50 percent of them say that they begin a task on one device and finish it on another.

Corporate IT Cannot Control Work Personal Computing Any Longer

The days of the IT department specifying a finite set of computers for employees is over. Consumer facing sites cannot assume there are 1 or 2 primary screen resolutions used to access their sites. You must be able to handle everyone on their terms, not yours.

According to Forrester 62% of US online adults expect a mobile-friendly website and 23% expect their mobile experience to change based on location. This may make you think about limiting your mobile experience, making it differ from the desktop experience. This is a common mistake. Device does not directly imply location or intent, therefor you cannot limit capabilities.

Pew Research Center’s study of U.S. smartphone use in 2015 found that 99% of smartphone owners use their phone at home, 82% use their phones while in transit, and 69% use their phone at work each week. People don’t want a stripped down set of content. Instead, they want quick and easy access to the materials they need on whatever device they happen to be using. Do not box in your customers, you need to give them the freedom to be successful, to spend money or engage with your company.

“We’ve been focused on a relatively small portion of the Web: a few desktops & laptops. Five years ago, our view of the Web was much more limited. We were overly concerned about a few fixed width views of our layouts…The three main ingredients of a responsive design: fluid grid, flexible images, and media queries. This is an attempt to embrace the fluidity of the Web and design across device boundaries.” – Ethan Marcotte 2016 Webstock

6-7 years ago I saw this trend emerging as the popularity of the iPhone and iPad were rising. I observed more and more ‘normal’ people as well as office workers using these devices for routine and business activities. Like most developers my first reaction was to create a mobile specific web site and separate the two experiences. After a few projects I realized this was a bad idea.

Meanwhile Ethan Marcotte released his book, Responsive Web Design and published the landmark article of the same name. In these publications he defined the term and the responsive design methodology popular today.

Mobile is a Way of Life

Mobile is a way of life today and often our customer’s first choice. In fact please stop using the terms mobile and mobile first and just change our mindset to accept it as part of the user experience landscape. In fact mobile class devices have overtaken traditional PCs in both traffic generated as well as device sales. Just to prove my point lets look at some statistics.

According to Smart Insights mobile overtook desktop sometime in the summer of 2014. There are numerous other surveys and public traffic announcements that back this statement up. If you are not seeing this reflected in your traffic then you will. More than likely your traffic trends are growing heavier towards mobile everyday. This means the need to account for mobile is urgent for most companies.

Why is mobile usage trending so high? Well obviously people like their personal mobile devices. This is reflected in hardware sales. Today mobile devices sales far outpace traditional PC sales:

Enterprises are not saving the dying PC market. More and more as I interact with different enterprises I encounter employees are adopting mobile and their personal laptop, not the corporate issued device.

Personal Observations

When I am in airports I like to observe what people are doing, in particular with their computing devices. By far phones and tablets dominate, but something I am noticing is the lack of traditional Windows PCs. Instead I see a majority of MacBooks.

Sometimes I talk to some of these people and ask why the MacBook and did their company issue that device to them. The answer to the later is no, they figured out how to get the Mac on the corporate network to do their work. Their work tends to revolve around e-mail, documents and line of business web applications. This is consumerization of IT in practice.

Making False Assumption

The consumerization of IT or BYOD means we as enterprise developers can no longer assume the screen and device our customer will use to interact with our application. This means we need a flexible user interface solution that works well on screens of all sizes.

Jason Grigsby has one of my favorite quotes on this topic:

“Any attempt to draw a line around a particular device class has as much permanence as a literal line in the sand. Pause for a moment and the line blurs. Look away and it will be gone. Let’s take the absolute best case scenario. You’re building a web app for internal users for whom you get to specify what computer is purchased and used. You can specify the browser, the monitor size, keyboard, etc.How long do you think that hardware will be able to be found? Three years from now when a computer dies and has to be replaced, what are the chances that the new monitor will be a touchscreen? By making a decision to design solely for a “desktop UI”, you are creating technical debt and limiting the longevity of the app you’re building. You’re designing to a collective hallucination. You don’t have to have a crystal ball to see where things are headed. And once you start accepting the reality that the lines inside form factors are as blurry as the lines between them, then responsiveness becomes a necessity.” – Jason Grigsby

You Cannot Predict Users Device or Intent

Let me finish with more supportive quotes. These will focus on breaking the natural habit of assuming too much about how a customer will use your applications.

“I think the key is not to assume anything. We don’t really know what our users have come to look at. So, we can’t say, “Oh, it’s okay. This person is on a mobile, so we’re going to cut out a load of the content so they can’t reach it.”

“The emergence of ideas like “responsive design” and “future-friendly thinking” are in part a response to the collective realization that designing products that solve one problem in one context at a time is no longer sustainable. By refocusing our process on systems that are explicitly designed to adapt to a changing environment, we have an opportunity to develop durable, long-lasting designs that renew their usefulness and value over time.”

Let’s review the main points:

I hope this article has provided resources to embolden you to pull the trigger on responsive web design. This article does not have actionable code or techniques, but should be used as evidence to the importance of responsive web design. I realize many of you agree responsive is the way to go, but may be limited by your managers or stakeholders. Feel free to use this article as a resource to help you sell responsive design in your organization.

How to Properly Copyright⚖ a Website – Legal & HTML Requirements👨🏼‍💻

CopyrightI am always looking to improve the quality of my web sites. Often these tweaks are little things here and there.

Today I wanted to share some knowledge on property adding the copyright symbol to your web pages.

Disclaimer: I am not a lawyer and this should not be considered legal advice. Consider this as research with actionable items based on my experience, research and expertise as a seasoned web developer.

In this article you will learn about copyright protection as it pertains to websites, where to find official documentation and how to code your website. So. there is something here for stakeholders and web developers.

What Does it Mean to Copyright a Website

According to the US Copyright office:

Copyright is a form of protection grounded in the U.S. Constitution and granted by law for original works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression. Copyright covers both published and unpublished works.

In the United States copyright law is based on the Copyright Act of 1976. The law gives authors of original works exclusive rights to the works and the option to grant usage rights to others.

In other words it declares who owns creative work, like design, text (copy), images and even source code. There are other mediums copyright laws protect, including music, audio or video. Process, systems, technique or ideas cannot be copyrighted, these are better suited for patent protection.

Generally, the ownership rights include:

To an artist or creative this means you own the right to allow others to use your creation. Typically, when you create something you can chose to give it away, which is how open source works, or charge a fee. Often these fees come in the form of a licensing agreement.

A common example is an athlete or celebrity licensing their image to promote a product.

Original work is copyrighted as soon as it is made, as long as it is documented or communicated in a tangible way.

Examples of tangibly documented include written on paper, saved on a hard drive, or captured on a recording device.

There is no global copyright registry and I don’t want to discuss the finer points of international law. But in most cases you can register a copyright with your country and they have reciprocal agreements with most countries concerning ownership.

How do you copyright a website?

The nature of a website is to be tangible. I mean it is code, media and text and it is saved to a disk and made available publicly. As soon as the file is saved it is considered copyrighted

The copyright notice most of us put at the bottom of our pages visibly proclaims all the site or page’s material and contents cannot be used without permission of the owner. It does not matter if the person or organization copying the contents sees the notice or not. In 1989 a public notice requirement was eliminated.

It gets tricky if you ever want to file an infringement lawsuit. You must officially register the website with the copyright office first. This requires a $35 online registration fee.

You must also make a content ‘deposit’. A deposit is the actual web site, as I interpret it, as it renders in the browser. You can upload the content to the copyright office.

What makes it complicated is any updates to the site require a new deposit and registration fee. I think this makes it difficult because most web sites update content frequently. I try to add 5-10 new articles on Love2Dev and I update 10-20 articles each month. I don’t have the money or time to continuously register with the copyright office.

Circulars, newsletters and databases are excluded from this requirement since they are considered to be an ongoing creation.

Website copyright rules are covered in detail in the Copyright Office’s Circular 66. The first couple of sentences gave me pause as I was researching for this article:

The Copyright Act does not explicitly recognize websites as a type of copyrightable subject matter. However, you may be able to register a website or a specific web page if it satisfies certain statutory requirements

That may seem like everything I have shared to this point is wrong. But it’s not.

What the Copyright Office won’t let you copyright is the website, which they refer to as the code, at least that is what I interpret. What you can copyright is the content, media and other original creative work contained in the website.

Copyrightable authorship is original expression contributed by an author that contains at least a minimum amount of creativity.
… An individual work that appears on a website can be registered if it constitutes copyrightable subject matter and contains a sufficient amount of original authorship.

Whew! I thought I blew it too 😜

Feel free to register your website’s copyrightable material. In most cases this is not necessary.

The easiest way to copyright your site is to add a copyright symbol with the year’s the copyright applies.

So, let’s get to the code!

Proper HTML Copyright Usage

The best and simplest way to copyright your website content is to add a copyright statement to your site’s footer. The most common place is at the very bottom of each page. Since it is a legal statement you should make it small…mouse type…because its legal and should be tiny.

You should include the copyright symbol © (special character) and the word ‘Copyright’. You should also include at least the current year. Some sites include the first year of the site’s existence.

The copyright symbol can be added in several ways.

The easiest way is to use the HTML symbol code.

To make the type small you should use the HTML SMALL element. This applies semantic meaning to the statement. You should also wrap the statement within a FOOTER element, again for proper semantics.

You should also make the year part of your template and dynamically rendered based on the current date. I use Mustache templates to render my markup, so it looks like this:

If you use node/JavaScript like me to render your pages, it is simple to get the current year:

Make sure you add the markup to your primary site layout or app shell. This way it propagates to all pages as they are rendered, and you don’t have to manually add it to each page.

You are not limited to using the HTML copyright symbol, you can also use the ASCII code, © and a few other character codes based on the file’s UTF encoding. Just be forewarned this may cause the symbol to not render correctly in all browsers. I recommend sticking to the HTML symbol, its just easier.

ASCII codes are pretty handy to know and use. You can get a full list of ASCII character codes.

If you use ASCII or Hex codes avoid copying and pasting from another source. Character encoding comes into play and what you paste may not be what you expect due to variations in formatting.

Website content by nature is copyrighted. The best way to publicly claim a copyright on your intellectual content is to add a small copyright notice at the bottom of every page.

The website itself (the code/application) is not eligible to be copyrighted, only the site’s content.

To have rights to take legal action you will need to officially register your site’s content with the Copyright office.

Website copyright notices are common around the web, just make sure you do it correctly and understand what can and cannot be copyrighted.

👩‍💻Underline Using CSS text-decoration & The HTML U Element👨‍💻

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Underlines are a way to bring attention to important text. There are two primary ways to underline text in web pages, the U element and the CSS text-decoration property.

warning-sign-at-beachBoth are simple to use, the U element adds semantic value to the meaning and may help your content SEO. The other can be
rendered on demand, which makes changing the underline state easy by applying a CSS class(es) to the text.

There are different positions on whether underlines are helpful when conveying meaning or accessibility. Color alone may
not be enough to convey meaning, and underlines are a natural way to add extra user experience value.

1.4.1 Use of Color: Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting
a response, or distinguishing a visual element.

You should also be careful when using underlines because they are most often
associated with hyperlinks.

In fact, underlined text has become one of the most common, most recognizable features of our online experience. When
we see an underlined word or sentence on a web page, we immediately assume it�s a link

Off the web underlines are great for emphasis. They draw attention to important aspects of the message.

This image demonstrates the point by not only relying on a larger font, but underlining ‘Warning’.

Underlines have several benefits:

Let’s underline some important text!

How Do You Underline Text in CSS Using text-decoration?

html-css-underlined-textA more flexible way to underline text is with the text-decoration property. It can also be used to remove underlines in hyperlinked text and add overlines.

An overline is the opposite of an underline. It renders a line above the text.

You can also use both underline and overline values for the same class definition.

Some examples:

The text-decoration property controls different ways the text can be rendered. By setting text-decoration to underline the
text within the element is underlined.

The best way to do this, if the text is part of a paragraph or sentence, is to wrap it within a SPAN tag. You can apply the
class with the underline property to the containing SPAN tag.

In addition to underling and overlining text you can also apply a strike-through. The line-through value renders a line through
eh middle of the enclosed text.

Typically CSS does not convey semantic meaning like an element. This does not mean it won’t be used that way. The Google
bot is pretty sophisticated and can interpret styles to convey meaning.

For the most part they are evaluating color contrasts, at least that is my impression. I also think they are looking for
underlined, bold and possibly slight color contrasts to look for special text.

I do know they use bold text as small signal toward the keyword you are targeting.

A cool text-decoration trick is combining each value: underline, overline, or line-through as a space-separated list. This applies all the line styles to the text:

It looks something like this: I have lots of lines

Dressing Up text-decoration Lines with text-decoration-* Properties

As with just about every major CSS property there is a collection of ‘extended’ properties you can set to apply more granular control and customization.

For text-decoration these include:

These extended properties give you control that mimics using the border properties (see below).

What is the HTML Code for Underline? The HTML U Element

html-underline-css-text-decoration-markupThe HTML U element, shorthand for underline, applies an underline to the enclosed text. It works much like the SPAN element, but
adds semantic meaning to the content.

It you need to convey meaning to assistive technologies or search engine spiders using elements like U can make it easier for these automated tools understand the emphasis.

The U element typically has the same default styles as the SPAN element. This means it has a display:inline-block. This allows
it to be used within a string of text (typically within a P tag) without changing the larger body of text’s flow.

You would not want underline text to add line breaks or suddenly change the justification settings, etc. That would disrupt
the reader’s engagement.

You can also add styles via classes to a U element to further control how underlined text is rendered. For example you could
change the color, font-face and letter spacing.

To further help assistive technologies you will want to add the aria-{underline setting}. Remember adding meta values to
elements is very helpful to these technologies. They may also be used by search engines.

Using Borders to Create Underlines

The text-decoration CSS property is a great for text, but can be limited from a design perspective and not relevant to non-text content types. The CSS border properties can also be used to render underlines.

Managing Anchor Text Underlines

You can also use the text-decoration to remove an underline from anchor elements. Browser default stylesheets all underline
links by default. This goes back to the web’s early days.

Today, it is better to customize hyper link styles. They may be used for many functions, like navigation or application actions.

A link within a paragraph may want to be underlined, but often they are bolded or some other style set applied that makes
them stand out from the surrounding text.

How to Remove an Underline from a Hyperlink in CSS

Just as you can add and style an underline using the CSS text-decoration property you can remove one as well. This can be handy when you need to remove an underline from an anchor.

Set the text-decoration value to none and all formatting is removed.

The A or anchor tag underlines text by default. You should also note you must explicitly add the ‘a’ to the selector to override the default behavior.

Wrapping It Up

There are two primary ways to underline text, the U tag and the text-decoration CSS property. The U element can apply semantic meaning to the underlined content the CSS technique may not convey to automated tools.

The CSS text-decoration approach is a little more flexible and is the approach I recommend.

You can grab the source code from my samples repository